Positive Thinking Does it Work?

Positive Discrimination aids happiness

Moving Mountains One Thought at a Time

  

By Amy Price PhD   

Positive thinking can be effective  in the beginning to change  outlooks because we are using the mind to actively alter our internal environment and this requires choice and discrimination at the conscious level.  This response gradually gets automated and conditioned to specific symptoms of negativity and loses impact.      

 Response to our environment is often at sub conscious levels and this response can be heightened by threatening, or rejecting information. Negative information which is not optimally processed can perpetuate sensitivity to rejection and lead individuals to  develop low self esteem. Studies have shown that people with low self-esteem have an attentional bias for rejection and people with high self-esteem do not [5]. Imaging studies show that we process rejection in the same area of the brain we process physical pain. Negativity releases a bio-chemical cascade that derails our built in reward system. Suddenly we have a need for sweets and fats to overcome the pain. This is a short term solution that makes us fat, cranky and tired over time as blood glucose levels spike and then drop causing motivational loss, exhaustion and frustration. Positivity discrimination can train you to quickly and automatically filter the positive, beneficial things from every situation and keep your reward system balanced, strong and happy.    

Research indicates self esteem levels can be increased with training.[5] Positivity bias trained in targeted ways can boost natural dopamine levels scores and trigger reward response mechanisms. Oxytocin [1], a  neurochemical crucial for satiation . Flourishing or a positivity bias is characterized by four key components: (a) goodness, indexed by happiness, satisfaction, and superior functioning; (b) generativity, indexed by broadened thought action repertoires and behavioral flexibility; (c) growth, indexed by gains in enduring personal and social resources; and (d) resilience, indexed by survival and growth in the aftermath of adversity    

 Brain strategies that focus on discriminating positivity factors under speed conditions require visio spatial skills, divided attention, executive function and speed of processing.[2]Targeted Action games starve out negative flashbacks by competing for visio spatial and sensory processes using mental rotation thus minimizing PTSD or other negative  memory traces. Deliberate memory recall is left intact [1] Positivity ratios need balance as individuals   flourish  when positivity ratios are above 2.9 ration, while  disintegration occurs when positivity rations top 11.6.  [2] Positivity needs to be recognized as genuine to increase esteem and promote flourishing [3] Older adults with relatively high levels of trait neuroticism evidence impairments on decision-making tasks, Neuroticism  signals a greater likelihood of age-related neuro-cognitive decline. [4] Positivity discrimination can reduce negativity[5]    

 My Brain Solutions is offering a free trial of  E-Catch the feeling to help you to increase your skill at discriminating quickly in favor of positive input and decreasing your sensitivity towards rejection and negative events. If you have an IPhone or Blackberry this can be teamed with My Calm Beat for optimal heart rate variability. This link will take you to mobile solutions including E-Catch The Feeling for your cell phone. For more information on My Brain Solutions, the first integrative neuroscience based brain optimization program and a free trial please email    

  References:    

  1. Holmes et al Can playing the computer game “Tetris” reduce the build-up of flashbacks for trauma? A proposal from cognitive science. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(1):e4153.
  2. Fredrickson B, Losada M. Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing. American Psychologist. 2005;60(7):678–686.
  3. Rosenberg, Et al ,Linkages between facial expressions of anger and transient myocardial ischemia in men with coronary artery disease. Emotion,. (2001). : 1, 107–115.
  4.  Denburg, et al. Poor decision making among older adults is related to elevated levels of neuroticism. Annals of behavioral medicine 2009;37(2):164-72.
  5. Baccus JR, Baldwin MW, Packer DJ.(2004) Psychological APS.;15(7):498-502..

Sustained Learning Power For Difficult Times

Reach Learning Potential

Reach Learning Potential

By Amy Price PhD

We are trained by what we see. The power to visualize can work for us or against us. This is why students who have a bad start seldom get up and why one bad relationship can lead to a negative lifestyle. If you watch the media around us or even UTube in a negative economic climate you will see a loss of hope and an increase in destructive images because people’s brains respond to  what they see.

An alternate title is “What you see on the inside produces consequences on the outside”. The Bible states this a couple of other ways “As an individual  thinks in his/her heart so is their destiny”   The prophets explained  the Israelites initial inability to enter the land of promise by saying  “They were like grasshoppers in their own sight and so they were the same in the eyes of others”.  

Science bears this out. According to integrative neuroscientist Evian Gordon (2001, 2008) minimizing danger and maximizing reward is a significant principle in how the brain organizes and in so doing impacts our lives. If a situation leads to a reward response such as positive emotions, words, or activities the brain engages and approaches or engages. When a situation brings up negative emotions or punishment the brain sends out an avoid response and detaches.

Learning is influenced by how we percieve ourselves. In one research study participants completed a paper maze that featured a mouse in the middle trying to reach a picture on the outside.  Half of the group saw a piece of the cheese as the picture to reach while others saw a predator.

The effect on learning the maze was astounding those that had the cheese picture solved more problems more creatively than those with the predator picture. (Friedman and Foster, 2001).  Other studies relate how people who specifically visualize and mentally practice winning have significant advantages over people who did not practice and in fact what they ‘thought” gave them a similar advantage to actually practicing (Logie and Denis ,1991)

Mental images have the power to change your life. The subconscious mind accepts these images as reality, and gradually you start to believe what you imagine, act accordingly, and unconsciously work toward making them a reality in your life. This can work for you or against you depending on how you visualize.

Practicing the paths to mental success can increase thinking power and allow routes to harness freedom and learning and increase your ability to act on what you see. If you visualize negative situations, difficulties and problem, and continue doing so, your moods will gradually become negative, you will alienate people, you will close your eyes to opportunities, and your self-esteem will go down.

At Sparks of Genius we offer positive solutions to increase your mental health and to sustain and multiply brain enhancement

Successful people attract success, because they constantly imagine and expect success. Mental images are like a movie or still pictures that you see in your mind. If you watch them again and again your subconscious mind will ultimately accept them as you reality. They will affect your thinking, relationships , and problem solving skills. To put it simply changing your movie can rock your world.

Using the power of mental  images involves learning to choose and cultivate positive life movies while editing out scenes  that diminish your confidence  to learn. I used to counsel  patients on how to change the scene in a nightmare to get a different ending. You can do the same thing in life.

Practice thought awareness, be aware of your thoughts. When you catch yourself visualizing negative life scenes that display you as weak, stupid or incompetent, stop the movie, eject it mentally   and put in a new movie  with a happy ending. When others deliver negative content edit it and delete events that do not support you and make you small. Visualize what you want and know is just  and what will make you happy and satisfied. Your mind is waiting on you for education, new vision and better habits.

It takes 30 days to change a habit so be patient and kind to yourself and remember that people who don’t care don’t matter. When I think back on those that have hurt me the details are faded,  but I will forever remember the kindness of a young woman and a stranger who without asking bent down to tie my shoes when I could not do it myself after a back injury. I was too proud to ask but she saw my need and wordlessly contributed to my life and added value. Think of movies where others showed you kindness and play these. See yourself as accomplishing your dreams and  accepting the rewards of your labor.

Life is like the movies…You produce your own show.  What you put in the hands of others will be multiplied to you…ask yourself what kind of movies am I contributing to others

For another way of seeing this  check out  articles on http://empower2go.blogspot.com

 References :

Friedman R. and Foster J. (2001). The effects of promotion and prevention cues on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1001-1013.

Gordon, E. (2000). Integrative Neuroscience: Bringing together biological, psychological and clinical models of the human brain. Singapore: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Gordon, E. et al. (2008), An “Integrative Neuroscience” platform: application to profiles of negativity and positivity bias, Journal of Integrative Neuroscience.

Robert H. Logie, Michel Denis 1991,Mental images in human cognition (Amsterdam, Netherlands) ; volume 80 of Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis

Brains Hardwired By Music?

Brains, Music  and Learning (Web Weaver Clip Art 2009)

Brains, Music and Learning (Web Weaver Clip Art 2009)

By Amy Price PhD

In 2007 colleagues and I conducted a 42 participant study as part of a research school experiment on working memory and cognitive loading. We explored using music as a strategic intervention to alter working memory loads. The premise was music could aid in more effectual encoding to increase learning potential.  As we learn extraneous or intrinsic cognitive load is invoked. Extraneous working memory loading is experienced by learners as they interact with instructional materials. Intrinsic cognitive load is the inherent level of difficulty associated with instructional materials (Chandler and Sweller 1991). More learning cues such as using pictures as well as words, learning with a song or even allowing student’s hands on instruction helps decrease this load. The more unnecessary information it takes to deliver your point the more extraneous cognitive load is produced. This is where a picture is worth a thousand words!  (Ayres 2006) states that when intrinsic or extraneous cognitive load is high, working memory is overloaded and learning is adversely affected.

This process happens as we learn new skills that we later do with some automaticity such as driving, riding a bike, learning a musical instrument or even doing algebra. The forming of efficient categorization and schemas is called germane load (Paas et al 2003, Sweller et al 1998).  

We considered that since music aids in efficient categorization perhaps learning and music together could decrease cognitive loading and increase germane ability by lightening the load. We tested this by having participants first listen to music designed to entrain concentration. According to (Doman 2007) entrainment can occur in as little as one minute. Music with specific timbres and rhythmic structure has demonstrated an increase in effectual category formation, (Ostrander1994, Rose1997) and can aid visual spatial perception, (Ruvenshteyn and Parrino, 2005) (Orel, 2006) Music is shown to aid in hemispheric transfer or communication between both halves of the brain (Taut et al 2005). We felt participants in the auditory condition would increase germane load and decrease extraneous load. The decrease in extraneous load is expected because of the neuronal changes evoked by entrainment (Pouliot 1998) (Carter and Russel 1992)

 What were our findings? Approximately 50% of our participants immediately increased their ability to sustain cognitive load by 150%. The other 50% decreased in this ability however many of these reported greater clarity of thought later in the day and improved their testing scores considerably. The lesson we learned from this is that for music to be effective at least for ½ the population consistency is the key. Many individuals need a consolidation period where learning is categorized and music is internalized.  

In fact, there are long term benefits of listening to music, notes Dan Levitin in This is Your Brain on Music.

“Music listening enhances or changes certain neural circuits, including the density of dendritic connections in the primary auditory cortex…The front portion of the corpus callosum—the mass of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres—is significantly larger in musicians than non-musicians, and particularly for musicians who began their training early…Musicians tend to have larger cerebellums than non-musicians, and an increased concentration of grey matter…responsible for information processing.” In the end music is like exercise, starting later in life is better than not starting at all and may confer neuroprotective benefits…but that is another study!

 

References

Ayres, P.L (2006) “Impact of reducing intrinsic cognitive load on learning in a mathematical domain”, Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol.20, 99 287-298.

Carter, J & Russell H. (2002) A Pilot Investigation of Auditory and Visual Entrainment of Brain Wave Activity in Learning Disabled Boys Stanford University USA

Chandler, P. & Sweller, J. (1991). “Cognitive Load Theory and the Format of Instruction”. Cognition and Instruction 8 (4): 293–332. doi:10.1207/s1532690xci0804_2. 

Clark, R., Nguyen, F., and Sweller, J. (2006). Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. ISBN 0-7879-7728-4. 

Conway, A. R. A., Jarrold, C., Kane, M. J., Miyake, A., & Towse, J. N. (Eds.). (2007). Variation in working memory. New York: Oxford University Press

Doman A, (2007) ABT conference Miami Fl. Advanced Brain Technology 5748 South Adams Avenue Parkway Ogden, Utah 84405, USA

Naish, P. 2005, Perceptual Processes ‘Attention’, Cognitive Psychology, Braisby and Gellatly, (eds) Open University in association with Oxford University Press UK

Orel, P., (2006) ‘Music Helps Students Retain Math’, Rutger’s Focus, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey USA

Ostrander, S., Shroeder, L., and Ostrander, L. (1994) Super Learning New York, Delacorte Press, (1994)

Paas, F. Tuovinen, J., Tabbers, H., and Van Gerven, P., (2003) ‘Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory’, Educational Psychologist, Vol 38(1), 63-71.

Pike and Edgar (2005) Perceptual Processes ‘Perception’, Cognitive Psychology, Braisby and Gellatly, (eds) Open University in association with Oxford University Press UK

Price A, Kessler R, 2006 “Sparks of Genius Recovered?”, Thinking Pays Boca Raton FL USA

Price A, Kirkpatrick M, Groszek M, “ 2007, Just practise? Or can ergonomic brain instruction or musical entrainment lighten the cognitive load to increase working memory performance and working load stamina?” Open University, Milton Keynes UK

Sweller et al (1988, 1989, 1993) Sweller, J., and Chandler, P., (1994) ‘Why some material is difficult to learn’ Cognition and Instruction, vol.12, pp185-233.

 Thaut, M., Peterson D., and McIntosh G. (2005) ‘Temporal Entrainment of Cognitive Functions: Musical Mnemonics Induce Brain Plasticity and Oscillatory Synchrony in Neural Networks Underlying Memory’, The Center for Biomedical Research in Music, Molecular, Cellular, and Integrative Neuroscience Programs, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA

 Tomatis, A. (1991) The Conscious Ear, Station Hill Press, Paris, (1991)

Price A, Kessler R, 2006 “Sparks of Genius Recovered?”, Thinking Pays Boca Raton FL USA

Price A, Kirkpatrick M, Groszek M, “ 2007, Just practise? Or can ergonomic brain instruction or musical entrainment lighten the cognitive load to increase working memory performance and working load stamina?” Open University, Milton Keynes UK

Rose, C. & Nicholl, M. (1997) Accelerating Learning for the 21st Century. New York: Dell Publishing (1997)

Roure, R., et al. (1998) Autonomic Nervous System Responses Correlate with Mental Rehearsal in Volleyball Training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 78(2), 99-108

  Ruvinshteyn M and Parrino L, (2005) Benefits Of Music In The Academic Classroom

Brain pills? Piracetam Shows Promise

By Amy Price PhD

One significant problem in traumatic brain injury is that secondary cell death occurs when the injured cells block the path for the other cells to get oxygen. One product that is used extensively in other countries but not the USA is Piracetam. It is interesting that research in pub med is showing promise for efficacy in human trials. There have been rat, rabbit, and fruit fly trials available for years but there is a lot that can differ between these and seeing actual human benefit.
I used this product to good effect many years ago without side effects and am encouraged to see studies supporting its effectiveness. The alternatives available to many people with TBI as far as psychotropic meds to restore some measure of function are concerned can sometimes have unexpected reactions or be of no effect.
Piracetam has been shown to alter the physical properties of the plasma membrane by increasing its fluidity and by protecting the cell against hypoxia. It increases red cell deformability and normalizes aggregation of hyperactive platelets according to Winnicka K, Tomasiak M, Bielawska A (2005) They are saying treatment with piracetam improves learning, memory, brain metabolism, and capacity by the interaction of this molecule with the membrane phospholipids to restore membrane fluidity . The graph below is from smart publications
The positive therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognitive (memory, attention, executive functions) and motor (coordination) functions as well as the speed of cognitive and motor performance were demonstrated in a study done by Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2008 for adolescents who sustained TBI’s.
Its efficacy is documented in cognitive disorders and dementia, vertigo, cortical myoclonus, dyslexia, and sickle cell anemia according to Winblad B (2005).
The results of a meta-analysis Waegemans T, Wilsher CR, Danniau A, Ferris SH, Kurz A, Winblad B. (2002) demonstrate a difference between those individuals treated with piracetam and those given placebo, both as significant odds ratio and as a favourable number needed to treat. While there may be problems in meta-analyses and the interpretation of the statistical results, the results of this analysis provide compelling evidence for the global efficacy of piracetam in a diverse group of older subjects with cognitive impairment.
This post does not in any way constitute any medical advice or recommendation. These posts are educational only to share with others some of the direction research is taking. Any medical information gained online should be supported and endorsed by your own doctor.
References:
[The consequences of closed traumatic brain injury and piracetam efficacy in their treatment in adolescents]
Zavadenko NN, Guzilova LS.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2008;108(3):43-8. Russian.
PMID: 18427539 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles
Piracetam–an old drug with novel properties?
Winnicka K, Tomasiak M, Bielawska A.
Acta Pol Pharm. 2005 Sep-Oct;62(5):405-9. Review.
PMID: 16459490 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Articles
Piracetam: a review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses.
Winblad B.
CNS Drug Rev. 2005 Summer;11(2):169-82. Review.
PMID: 16007238 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Clinical efficacy of piracetam in cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis.
Waegemans T, Wilsher CR, Danniau A, Ferris SH, Kurz A, Winblad B.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2002;13(4):217-24.
PMID: 12006732 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Dyslexia and the Cerebellum

Dyslexic individuals seem to struggle with pattern learning. Reading is like pattern learning on steroids. Recent research compares a group of adult dyslexics with a control group of normal readers in the learning of a simple sequencing task. Participants pressed one of four buttons that corresponded to a visual stimuli that appeared in a predictable pattern during an fMRI scan. Previous studies had found that dyslexics are worse at learning this simple sequence and the researchers were interested in the differences in brain activity between the two groups.

The study found that there was a notable difference in brain activity between dyslexics and non-dyslexics. Significantly the cerebellum was more active in the dyslexics than it was in the non-dyslexics.

Research suggests that the cerebellum plays a key role in learning by comparing what the brain expects to happen with what actually happens. As the subjects learn the sequence, the difference between expected and actual results diminishes and the work load on the cerebellum reduces. In the non-dyslexic brains, the cerebellum is more efficient at this process so sequence learning and the corresponding drop off in cerebellum activity occurs sooner.

It is of interest that expert learners such as chess champions and experts at logic games can play with a lot less cognitive loading, thus freeing up other processing resources for memory, attention and learning. Even for experts this takes hours of practise. Perhaps a focus on effective categorization and efficient filtering rather than endless attention and working memory games could produce skills that would transfer to new areas of learning.

Gain Ground by Building Brain Potential

By Amy Price PhD

Of the 1.4 million who sustain a TBI each year in the United States: 50,000
die; 235,000 are hospitalized; and 1.1 million are treated and released from an
emergency department. The number of people with TBI who are not seen in an
emergency department or who receive no care is unknown.

Major causes of TBI are: Falls (28%); Motor vehicle-traffic crashes
(20%); Struck by/against events (19%); and Assaults (11%). TBI costs the USA
approximately 60 billion dollars per year in care and lost productivity (Statistics supplied by BIAA)

Helmets are often proposed as a cure all. The problem is according to the statistical breakdown above over 50% of related injuries would occur from non helmet activities. Better immediate care and follow up would lessen the severity of impairment for a large proportion of survivors

TBI can cause a wide range of functional changes affecting thinking, language, learning, emotions, behavior, and/or sensation. It can also cause epilepsy and increase the risk for conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other brain disorders that become more prevalent with age.

Survivors report the areas they most need help are: Improving memory and problem solving; Managing stress and emotional upsets; Controlling one’s temper; and improving social and employment skills.
A mind is a terrible thing to lose…if you have sustained a head injury all is
not lost help is available .
The links above in blue contain help and information.

We are often asked how do I find a good treating professional? Ask your local brain injury association. Word of mouth is good. Check with healthcare facilities, neighbors and friends. Find a professional who will work with you or your family member to get results rather than just tell you to learn to adjust to the problem.

Many individuals have run out of health care options. They ask what can be done at home. The Wall Street Journal has an excellent article about how people can be pro-active in retraining their brains. There is continuing research going on in this area. If you have a strategy or treatment that you have found helpful please let us know.

Here is a place where you can try brain games for free. This site is monitored by scientists from Stanford university who are collecting brain function data for a mega study.

Jig saw puzzles can help with spatial function. You can try these free from a simple six piece
puzzle to a 247 piece challenger
. Crossword puzzles can help with language and reasoning

The world is a dangerous place, not because of those who do evil, but because of those who look on and do nothing. – Albert Einstein

Fibromyalgia and Brain Fog

By Amy Price PhD
Photo courtesy of (Earthopod, 2009 )depicting pain areas in fibromyalgia.
Fibromyalgia (FMS) comes from three words, the Latin term for fibrous tissue (fibro) and the Greek ones for muscle (myo) and pain (algia). Another way of saying this is muscle knots tied by painful ropes. This condition is not amenable to the medical model so clinicians fell back on the old standby “It’s all in your head” implying the problem is generated by emotional instability rather than specific biological origins.

Fibromyalgia was tagged a syndrome (Fibromyalgia, com, 2008). Patients got mad. They refused to be stonewalled by ignorance or marginalized. Instead they formed strong lobby groups and started campaigning for funding and action (Fibromyalgia network, 2008). This resulted in research getting funded, better treatment options and social change. (CRISP lists 695 NIH funded projects since 2000)

Researchers are finding that FMS could be a disorder of the central processing system resulting in neuroendocrinal and neurotransmitter dysregulation (Bennett, 2008). The FMS patient experiences pain amplification because their pain sensors are slow to recognize pain but the pain they feel spreads across a wider area, lasts longer and is more severe than in a person without FMS ( Staud et al, 2008). Increasingly scientific studies demonstrate physiological abnormalities in the FMS patient including increased levels of substance P in the spinal cord (Helle et al ,1998), low levels of blood flow to the thalamus region of the brain (Kwiatek et, 2000), HPA axis hypo function (McBeth et al, 2007) low levels of serotonin and tryptophan plus abnormalities in cytokine function (Crofford, 1998). Abnormalities like these spell pain. This leads to losses in sleep quality, cognition and coordination, and to increased drug use susceptibility.

New research strengthened by the advent of physical evidence such as SPECT, PET, FMRI and QEEG is confirming fibromyalgia is a biological problem that may cause psychological distress rather than a psychosomatic hysteria pioneered by women as appears to be insinuated by Mcdermid et al, (2008)

New hope may come for some FMS sufferers in the discovery of the brain’s ability to regenerate dendrites a process known as neuroplasticity (Toates, 2006). It is possible that targeted brain and body training may alleviate the severity of chronic pain and cognitive dysfunction associated with FMS (Leurding et al, 2008)

Leurding et al (2008) demonstrates that in fibromyalgia both white and grey brain matter is compromised. Brain imaging studies in FMS patients point to alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (Mountz et al., 1995), in cerebral processing of sensory and nociceptive stimuli (Gracely et al., 2002; Cook et al., 2004) also in dopamine response to pain (Wood et al., 2007). Leurding (ibid) used these imaging studies as a foundation for neuropsychological tests to show that the changed state of brain matter leads to “brain fog” rather than psycho-social maladaption, drug induced confusion, or loss of sleep as primary factors.

Patients offered cognitive rehabilitation tools may improve mental function when these tools are offered before significant white and grey matter dysfunction appears. Neuroplasticity can still be of benefit after damage occurs but progress is slower (Saczynski, 2004)
Brain areas responsible for proprioception damaged in fibromyalgia may be modified by body awareness training according to a pilot study carried out by (Kendall et al, 2000). Targeted body awareness physiotherapy programs led to patient improvement in pain levels and functional capacity even when patients were retested eighteen months after treatment (Kendall et al 2000).
Kendall et al (2000) were dismissive of positive effects realized by stress reduction, hypnosis or neurofeedback training but other researchers such as Meuler et al, 2001 found these treatments were beneficial. FMS is not one size fits all (Bennett, 2006).

A trial of cognitive rehabilitation synergised with neurofeedback and cognitive rehabilitation is underway to determine how combining passive and active therapy can multiply positive effects. Participants will be tested at timely increments and their ongoing level of progress studied.

Another option is to decrease pain to restore function. This is where regenerative medicine can help with therapies like adult stem cell treatment and prolotherapy. Another option is a treatment called IMS where overly sensitized nerve points are reset using a medical system similar to acupuncture.

Bennett, R. (2006) Understanding Chronic Pain and Fibromyalgia: A Review of Recent Discoveries Oregon Health Sciences University, National Fibromyalgia Association. A non-profit 501 (C)(3) organization 2121 S. Towne Centre, Suite 300, Anaheim, CA 92806 714.921.0150 Copyright ©1997-2008 National Fibromyalgia Association (NFA) http://www.fmaware.org/site/PageServer?pagename=fibromyalgia_science (accessed 12/01/2008

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